Accuracy - General term, usually referring
to the inherent ability of a rifle to consistently group all its shots
close together on a target at a given distance under perfect conditions.
It takes no account of human error, wind conditions, etc.
Also applied to a given load, brand of ammo, bullet, etc., or to a combination of rifle and cartridge. See Group.
In sniping, the ability of the sniper and his weapon to deliver precision fire on a desired target. Accuracy can easily be measured as the ability to group all shots close to a desired impact point. The deviation from the desired impact point or the size of the group is a function of range. Accuracy is the product of uniformity.
Action - The combination of the receiver or frame and breech bolt together with the other parts of the mechanism of a sniper rifle or other firearm that normally performs loading, feeding, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, and ejection.
Adjustable Objective - Fine focusing ring on the objective lens of a telescope that helps to eliminate parallax.
Adjusted Aiming Point - An aiming point that allows for gravity, wind, target movement, zero changes, or MOPP firing.
Aggregate - The sum total of all targets in competitive shooting; final score.
Aluminium Jacketed Hollow Point - ( Bullet ) abbr. AJHP.
Ammunition - One or more loaded cartridges consisting of a primed case, propellant and, with or without, one or more projectiles, depending on the type of weapon used.
Ammunition Lot - A quantity of cartridges made by one manufacturer under uniform conditions from the same materials. Ammunition within a lot is expected to perform in a uniform manner.
Ammunition Lot Number - Code number that identifies a particular quantity of ammunition from one manufacturer. It is usually printed on the ammunition case and the individual boxes in which the ammunition comes.
Annealing - The process of making brass more malleable by controlled heating followed by rapid cooling. Usually applied to the neck and shoulder area of cases which are to be reformed to a calibre or design different from the original ( makes them less prone to cracking during the reforming process ). This should not be done to the head of the case, since reducing the strength of this part may result in failures.
Anvil - Internal part of Boxer primer. The anvil is raised in the centre to form a cone, and has three legs which rest against the bottom of the primer pocket, spanning the flash hole. It offers concentrated resistance to the firing pin as it dents the primer, crushing the priming compound between them, which is ignited by the resulting sharp friction.
Arsenal - A manufacturing or storage facility for arms and ammunition. Best known in the United States for their development work are Frankford Arsenal, Picatinny Arsenal and Watertown Arsenal. A term often applied to the collection of firearms owned by an individual or a group.
Assault Rifle - A military rifle intended purely for one-man operation and equipped to provide both semiautomatic or full-automatic fire by means of a selector switch or other fire-control device. Today's assault rifles are typified by the Soviet AK 47 and the U. S. M 16. They are chambered for an intermediate cartridge, have barrels under 20 inches, make extensive use of plastics and stampings, use gas operation and locked breeches, have magazine capacities of 20 to 30 rounds, weigh from six to 10 pounds and are quite compact.
Autoloader - See Semi-automatic.
Automatic - A firearm design that feeds cartridges, fires and ejects cartridge cases as long as the trigger is fully depressed and there are cartridges available in the feed system. Actuation of the mechanism may be from an internal power source such as gas pressure or recoil, or external power source, such as electricity. See Semi-automatic.
Automatic Safety - A device on some firearms intended to return the safety to the "On" (safe) position when the action is opened.
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